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Fascinating facts about Earl Tupper
inventor of Tupperware
® in 1945.
Earl Tupper
Inventor: Earl Silas Tupper
Earl Tupper photo courtesy Tupperware Worldwide
Criteria: First to invent. First practical. Entrepreneur.
Birth: July 28, 1907 in Berlin, New Hampshire.
Death: October 5, 1983 in Costa Rica
Nationality: American
Earl Silas Tupper was born in 1907, to a New Hampshire farming family of modest means. During his youth and boyhood in New England, his mother Lulu Clark Tupper, took in laundry and ran a boarding house, while his father, Earnest Leslie operated a small family farm. Earnest Tupper loved to tinker, developing labor-saving devices for the farm and family greehouses; one of his devices, a frame to faciliate the cleaning of chickens, was granted a patent. It is from his father that Earl Tupper is said to have developed a love for invention. Even as a boy, Tupper showed an enterprising and entreprenuerial spirit. At the age of 10, Earl discovered he could move more of the family's produce by selling door-to-door, bringing the product directly to the customer. After high school graduation in 1925, Tupper continued to work in the family greenhouses in Shirley Massachusetts for two years. Tupper was an ambitious young man, though, and he was was determined to earn his first million by the time he was thirty. During the twenties, he set out on a number of different paths, including work as a mail clerk and on a railroad labor crew. In 1928, he took a course in tree surgery, with the idea of setting up his own tree surgery and landscaping business. He continued to help out with the family business, and got married in 1931. Through the early thirties, the landscaping and nursery business contined to grow and thrive, despite the Depression, enabling Tupper to pursue some of his ideas and inventions. His scientific notebooks for this period reflect the diversity of his interests. Even after Tupper Tree Doctors was forced into bankruptcy in 1936, Tupper remained optimistic about his ability to develop and manufacture some of his inventions.

In 1936, Tupper met Bernard Doyle, the inventor of Viscoloid, the plastics manufacturing division of DuPont, located in nearby Leominster, Mass. He went to work for DuPont in 1937, but stayed there only one year. Later, Tupper would say it was at Dupont "that my education really began." Tupper took the experience he had gained in plastics design and manufacturing at DuPont, and struck out on his own. In 1938, he formed the Earl S. Tupper Company, advertising the design and engineering of industrial plastics products in Leominster, Massachusetts. Much of the fledgling company's early work was performed under subcontract to DuPont. Business was good during the war, because despite the difficulty of acquiring the raw materials necessary for plastics production for the domestic market, Tupper Plastics was able to garner several defense contracts, molding parts for gas masks and Navy signal lamps. After the war, Tupper turned his attention to developing plastics for the growing consumer market. Many of his earliest designs, which included plastic sandwich picks, cigarette cases, and an unbreakable tumbler for the bathroom, were offered as premiums with other products. For example, Tek toothbrushes offered the tumbler with purchase of a toothbrush, and cigarette companies and other businesses offered cigarette cases imprinted with their logo.

Plastics was still in its infancy in the forties, and the commercial market for plastics product was limited by plastic's reputation for being brittle, greasy, smelly and generally unreliable. Tupper's contributions were twofold. First, he developed a method for purifying black polyethylene slag, a waste product produced in oil refinement, into a substance that was flexible, tough, non-porous, non-greasy and translucent. Second, he developed the Tupper seal, an airtight, watertight lid modeled on the lid for paint containers. Together, these innovations laid the foundations for the future success of Tupperware. Nevertheless, marketing the new product presented a challenge. Tupper experimented with department store sales, but as Businessweek reported in 1954, "in retail stores it fell flat on its face." It seemed clear that the new lid required explanation or demonstration.

In the late 1940s, Thomas Damigella (in Massachusetts) and Brownie Wise (in Florida) were selling household products through Stanley Home Products. Purchasing through local plastics distributors, both began offering Tupperware as part of their product line, and were moving enough Tupperware to attract Earl Tupper's attention. In 1948, Tupper met with Damigella, Wise, and several other local distributors at a Sheraton in Worcester Massachusetts to discuss a new distribution plan. Modelled on the home party plan pioneered by Stanley Home Products and expanded and refined by Brownie Wise, the home party plan became and remains the exclusive outlet for Tupperware. Wise was named Vice President of the company (named Tupperware Home Parties) in 1951, a position she held until 1958. In 1958, Tupper sold out to Justin Dart of Rexall Drug Company for $16 million, and also divorced his wife. He bought himself an island in Central America, and eventually moved to Costa Rica, giving up his U.S. citizenship to avoid taxes. Tupper died on October 5, 1983.

Tupperware's success stems from the combined genius of Earl Tupper, the self-styled Yankee inventor and entreprenuer and Brownie Wise, the consummate saleswoman and motivator. If Tupper personified reverence for the product, Wise personified respect for the sales force. "If we build the people," she was fond of saying, "they'll build the business." Almost half a century later, their legacy remains an important part of Tupperware's continuing success.

TO LEARN MORE

RELATED INFORMATION:
The Entrepreneur    from The Great Idea Finder
Invention of Tupperware    from The Great Idea Finder

ON THE BOOKSHELF:
Tupperware: The Promise of Plastic in 1950s America
by Alison J. Clarke / Paperback: 241 pages / Smithsonian Institution Press;  (March 2001)

From Wonder Bowls to Ice-Tup molds to Party Susans, Tupperware has become an icon of suburban living. Invented by Earl Tupper in the 1940s to promote thrift and cleanliness, the pastel plasticwares were touted as essential to a postwar lifestyle that emphasized casual entertaining and celebrated America's material abundance.

As Seen on TV: The Visual Culture of Everyday Life in the 1950s
by Karal Ann Marling / Paperback:/ Harvard Univ Press, Reprint edition (March 1996)

Opening with a photograph of a 1950s Disneyland home designed in the shape of a TV (by those fun-loving futurists at MIT), this book's text and photos consistently maintain a balance between insightful social commentary and critique and sensitive recapturing of the essence of visual broadcast's dawn.

ON THE WEB:
Tupperware
Official site of the Tupperware Company with everything you need to know about Tupperware, including where to purchase the products.
(URL: www.tupperware.com)
Five Decades of Change
The versatility and convenience of Tupper's "miracle" products helped to launch the plastics revolution of the next decade.
(URL: order.tupperware.com/coe/app/tup_company.decades)
Invention Dimension - Inventor of the Week
Celebrates inventor/innovator role models through outreach activities and annual awards to inspire a new generation of American scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs.
(URL: web.mit.edu/invent/iow/tupper.html))
Earl S. Tupper Papers
If Tupper personified reverence for the product, Wise personified respect for the sales force. "If we build the people," she was fond of saying, "they'll build the business." Their legacy remains an important part of Tupperware's continuing success.
(URL: americanhistory.si.edu/archives/d8470b.htm)

People & Events: Earl Silas Tupper (1907-1983)
Tupper sold out to Justin Dart of Rexall Drug Company for $16 million, and also divorced his wife. He bought himself an island in Central America, and eventually moved to Costa Rica, giving up his U.S. citizenship to avoid taxes. Tupper died on October 5, 1983.
(URL: www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/tupperware/peopleevents/p_tupper.html)

DID YOU KNOW?

  • A Tupperware demonstration started every two seconds somewhere in the world.
  • Around the world, nearly 118 million people attended a Tupperware demonstration.
  • Tupperware® brand products were sold in over 100 markets around the world.
  • Worldwide net sales were $1.2 billion.
  • Tupperware® is such a unique and preeminent status in the industry that its trademark has become practically an international generic term.
  • One of the first direct sellers for Tupperware was Brownie Wise, a single mother with a genius for people and a flare for marketing. Wise was so successful demonstrating and selling Tupper's plastics that he brought her into his company in 1951 to build the direct selling system that has made the Tupperware party almost as famous as his products
  • Tupper also kept an illustrated notebook of his inventions. He fancied himself to be a latter-day Leonardo. .
Designated trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners.
Reference Sources in BOLD Type This page revised October 23, 2006.
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