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COMPUTING HISTORY

 
 
 INVENTION      INVENTOR   YEAR
abacus Chinese 3000 BC
Atanasoff Berry Computer Dr.John Vincent Atanasoff 1939
computer compiler Grace Hopper 1952
computer mouse Douglas Engelbart 1968
computer program Ada Lovelace' 1843
Dynamic Random Access Memory Robert Dennard 1967
ENIAC John Mauchley and J. Presper Eckert 1946
Ethernet Robert Metcalfe 1973
hand-held calculator Jack Kilby, Jerry D. Merryman and James H. Van Tassel 1966
integrated circuit Jack Kilby 1958
Internet Vinton Cerf 1973
Jacquard loom Joseph-Marie Jacquard 1801
Mark I Howard Aiken 1944
mechanical adding machine Blaise Pascal 1642
microprocessor Ted Hoff 1968
PC modem Dennis Hayes & Dale Heatherington 1977
Personal Computer.. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak 1976
punch card machine Herman Hollerith 1890
Random Access Memory Jay Forrester 1951
transistor John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley 1947
Turing machine Alan Turing 1940
Video Game William Higinbotham 1958

TO LEARN MORE

ON THE BOOKSHELF:
100 Inventions That Shaped World History
by Bill Yenne, Morton, Dr. Grosser (Editor) / Paperback - 112 pages (1983)
/ Bluewood Books 
This book contains inventions from all around the world from microchips to fire. This is a really good book if you are going to do research on inventions.

American Computer Pioneers
by Mary Northrup / Library Binding - 112 pages (July 1998) / Enslow Publishers, Inc.
This entry in the Collective Biographies series covers major players in the development of the computer, from Herman Hollerith, the inventor of punch cards, through the inventors of ENIAC and UNIVAC, as well as Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and Marc Andreessen of Netscape.

Computers: An Illustrated History
by Christian Wurster / Hardcover: 480 pages / TASCHEN America Llc; (February 2002)

Discover the fascinating history of computers, interfaces, and computer design in this illustrated guide that includes pictures of nearly every computer ever made, an informative text describing the computer's evolution up to the present day
Computer: A History of the Information Machine
by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray / Paperback: 368 pages / HarperCollins;   (August 1997)

This history of the computer explores the roots of the industry's phenomenal development, tracing not only the development of the machine itself--beginning with Charles Babbage's well-known 1883 mechanical prototype--but also chronicling the effects of manufacturing and sales innovations by such companies as Remington and National Cash Register that made the boom possible.
The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal
by Mitchell M. WaldropPaperback: 512 pages / Penguin USA; (August 27, 2002)

If you had to choose just one 20th-century computer pioneer that we couldn't do without, it would have to be the man behind the Dream Machine.

ENIAC: The Triumphs and Tragedies of the World's First Computer
by Scott McCartney / Hardcover - 262 pages / Walker & Co
Eckert and Mauchly later lost the patent on their machine when it was claimed that another early experimenter, John Atanasoff, had given them all the ideas about ENIAC that mattered.
The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer
by Georges Ifrah / Hardcover - 356 pages (October 2000) / John Wiley & Sons
The author has great respect for our ancestors and their work, and he transmits this feeling to his readers with humor and humility. His timelines, diagrams, and concordance help   the reader who might be unfamiliar with foreign concepts of numbers and computation keep up with his narrative.

The Universal History of Numbers : From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer
by Georges Ifrah / Hardcover: 656 pages / Wiley; (November 19, 1999)
Dubbed the "Indiana Jones of numbers," Georges Ifrah traveled all over the world for ten years to uncover the little-known details of this amazing story. From India to China, and from Egypt to Chile, Ifrah talked to mathematicians, historians, archaeologists, and philosophers.
Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet

by Katie Hafner, Matthew Lyon (Contributor) / Paperback - 304 pages (1998) / Touchstone Books
Hafner and Lyon have written a well-researched story of the origins of the Internet substantiated by extensive interviews with its creators. Essential reading for anyone interested in the past -- and the future -- of the Net specifically, and telecommunications generally.

ON THE SCREEN:
Computers
DVD / 1 Volume Set / 50 Minutes / History Channel / Less than $25.00
The incredible breakthroughs and refinements that have marked the development of the computer are so familiar that they have lost some of their power to amaze
 The Creation of the Computer
DVD / 1 Volume Set / 50 Minutes / History Channel / 73090 / Less than $25.00
Trace the technological advancements that led to the first true modern "computers" and the rapid progress that saw computers shrink from room-sized monsters to the desktop units that are revolutionizing life in the '90s.

ON THE WEB:

American Computer Museum
Located in Bozeman, Montana, USA is one of the world's largest and most comprehensive collection of computer and information age history anywhere on public display!
(URL: www.compustory.com/)
Babbage's Calculating Engines 1832-1871
Charles Babbage's calculating engines are among the most celebrated icons in the prehistory of computing. His Difference Engine No. 1 was the first successful automatic calculator and remains one of the finest examples of precision engineering of the time. The Science Museum of London has a working model of the Difference Engine Number 2 on display.
(URL: www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/on-line/treasure/objects/1862-89.asp)
A Brief History of the Internet
From the Internet Society
(URL: www.isoc.org/internet-history/brief.html)

The Calculators Museum
The Museum of HP Calculators displays and describes Hewlett-Packard calculators introduced from 1968 to 1986 plus a few interesting later models. There are also sections on calculating machines and slide rules as well as sections for buying and selling HP calculators, an HP timeline, collecting information and a software library.
(URL: www.hpmuseum.org/)
Charles Babbage Institute
The Charles Babbage Institute is an historical archives and research center of the University of Minnesota. CBI is dedicated to promoting study of the history of information technology and information processing and their impact on society.
(URL: www.cbi.umn.edu/)

Computer History
Within our time line you will find a very detailed section listing key events to the evolution of computers. Computer history from B.C. to today, includes people and company profiles.
(URL: www.computerhope.com/history/index.htm)
Computers in the Office
SciTech, Carbons to Computers series from the Smithsonian Institution. As we continue to barrel through the information age, it is hard to imagine conducting business without computers.
(URL: www.smithsonianeducation.org/scitech/carbons/computers.html)

Computer Museum of America
The mission of the Computer Museum of America is to preserve the major milestones in the development of the computer industry and to chronicle these milestones for the enrichment and education of all. Our exhibits highlight the history of data processing and the contributions of pioneers in the field.
(URL: www.computer-museum.org/index.html)

The Computer Society
From the history of the computer. Presented by The Computer Society.
(URL: www.computer.org/history/development/early.htm)

Computers
SciTech, Carbons to Computers series from the Smithsonian Institution.
(URL: educate.si.edu/scitech/carbons/computers.html)

From ABACUS to IBM
Article by J. B. Browning for the University of North Carolina at Wilmington
(URL: www.uncwil.edu/Ed/INSTRUCT/comphist.htm)

Computers
The computer is a defining symbol of 20th century technology - a tool that has transformed businesses and lives around the world, increased productivity, and opened access to vast amounts of knowledge.Chosen as the #8 greatest engineering achievement of the 20th Century by the National Academy of Engineering.
(URL:: www.greatachievements.org/greatachievements/ga_8_1.html)

History of Calculating Machines
Blaise Pascal dosen't get all the credit. What about Wilhelm Schickard and Leonardo da Vinci.
(URL: www.webcom.com/calc/)

The History of Computing Project
The foundation (tHoCF) is dedicated to the history of computing in the widest meaning of the word. The foundation's collection of historical documentation provides the raw material of future history. It is used by students, historians and museums around the world.
(URL: www.thocp.net/)
A History of the Computer
Computers have their beginnings back in pre-history, starting with the abacus. Have a look! Timeline from the PBS series "Triumph of the Nerds".
(URL: www.pbs.org/nerds/timeline/)
A History of the Microprocessor
You've arrived at Intel's interactive history of the microprocessor. Lots of COOKIES at this site.
(URL: www.intel.com/intel/intelis/museum/exhibit/hist_micro/index.htm)
PARC History
Xerox Corporation gathers together a team of world-class researchers in information sciences and physical sciences and gives them the mission to create "the architecture of information." The Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) officially opens its doors in Palo Alto, California on July 1, 1970.
(URL: www.parc.com/about/history/default.html)
A Short History of the Web
Has told by Tim Berners-Lee.
(URL: www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/ShortHistory)
Software History Center
The Software History Center is dedicated to preserving the history of the software industry, one of the largest and most influential industries in the world today. 
(URL: www.softwarehistory.org/)
The Virtual Museum of Computing
This virtual museum includes an eclectic collection of World Wide Web (WWW) hyperlinks
connected with the history of computing and on-line computer-based exhibits available both
locally and around the world.

(URL: vmoc.museophile.com/)

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